Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

imagine that you put your neighbor's annoying cat in a box. that contains a mechanism with radioactive material and a flask of poisonous liquid.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

an hour later there's a 50% chance that the radioactive atom will decay which will open the flask of poison and the cat will die.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

if there's no decay the pet will survive. as long as the Box remains closed the cat is considered to be both alive and dead.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

so how can we learn its fate without opening the box. for the past 100 years the best minds on the planet have tried to solve this riddle and it appears that they have recently succeeded.
fortunately over all the years and experiments in quantum physics not a single animal was injured. well at least we think so.
the riddle with the cat was a thought experiment proposed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger. and since then his imaginary thought experiment become the most famous cat experiment in history.

Superposition


Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

The essence of this thought experiment is to show the imperfection of quantum theories. which states that the atomic nucleus as well as all elementary particles are in so-called superposition.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

that is the nucleus of an atom simultaneously decays and does not decay. accordingly the cat is both alive and dead.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

but when we open the box it will not be in both states at the same time only in one. accordingly the study of quantum simultaneous States is impossible.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

because when we observe an object it acquires one specific state. when a particle is monitored we can witness while it makes a quantum leap. a transition to one specific state.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

moreover this jump occurs instantly as if by the push of a button.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

however this of the 1990s believe that a particle goes through a certain smooth path before making a quantum leap.
which technology had not previously been able to measure. in 2019 Yale University physicists, along with their colleagues from France and New Zealand found a way to do it.

Qubits


Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

the scientists conducted an experiment in which they indirectly observe qubits, artificial atoms used as the basic units of information in a quantum computer.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

the researchers used three microwave generators to irradiate the qubit in an aluminum container.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

this microwave radiation switches the qubit between energy states. well the second ray controls the capacitance.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment 

when the qubit is in the ground state, microwave radiation produces photons.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

when the photons begin to disappear, this signals that the qubit is about to make a quantum leap to the excited state.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

this means that the quantum leap is more like a smooth shift lever rather than an abrupt push of a button.
therefore it's possible to predict whether the cat will die before the particle makes a quantum leap, which will save the pet from death just in time.

moreover the quantum leap can be reversed or you can change its direction. that is you can control the quantum state of the atom and save any cat placed in a steel box with poison.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

only there's one caveat by irradiating an atom. we won't simply track the trajectory of the quantum jump. but rather change it even a single particle of light, a photon can change the energy of an atom.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

which means that when you observe an atom with the help of light, you'll also be able to determine the quantum state of the particle.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

so in this way we can't solve the riddle of Schrodinger's cat.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

However Holger Hofmann from Hiroshima University and Karthik patek are from the Indian Institute of Technology and Bombay,

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

decided to find a method to look inside the cat without changing anything in the structure of the observed particle.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

scientists have suggested that at the initial stage,

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

when we only look at the cat before placing it in the box, the photons scatter without any loss of information.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

it's only at the second stage. when we find out whether the cat is alive or not. so half of the information is eliminated as false.


Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

one of these possibilities will cancel the other one out.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

now imagine that the cat is still in the box but instead of getting it out. we place a camera outside that will take a picture of the cat.
the image will be blurry and it will give us two types of information.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

the first type is a quantum label, that shows how the cat changed during the interaction. and the second type, is the state of the cat whether it is alive or dead.
until both types of information are read they're not clear to the observer.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

further it all depends on the order in which the information is processed, either the observer can remove the quantum mark or find out whether the cat is alive or not.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

when one piece of information is known the second will be automatically deleted. but until the photo is processed the cat is in a quantum superposition.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

to make this easier to understand, you can refer to the example of a coin toss. you can find out only two types of information about it.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

either the coin is flipped now and rotate in the air or it lies on the table with heads or tails up.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

it's impossible to observe both events at the same time. however the blurry snapshot of the cat, allows you to capture these two types of information at the same time.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

that is for the first time, physicists have the opportunity to measure a quantum system, without its distortion. that always occurs during observation.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

however as it turned out in even earlier studies, not only can they can't be alive and dead at the same time. but it can also be in two different boxes at the same time.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

Chen Wang, a physicist at Yale University. together with colleagues, built 2 aluminum cavities with a diameter of about 1 inch or 2.5 centimeters.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

and placed a superconducting element, made of sapphire inside them. which emitted stable waves of light.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

as a result the quantum cat, consisting of 80 photons was simultaneously in two containers. True, such an effect can be observed only under special conditions.
this requires ultra pure aluminum, high precision micro circuits and electromagnetic devices, that allow photons to exist in isolation from the observer.
as soon as something from the environment, intervenes in this process all this quantum magic will disappear almost instantly. by the way, these quantum features are also related to temperature.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

thanks to Schrodinger's cat, physicists from the University of Exeter in England, managed to find out, that in the quantum world one particle in have two different temperatures at the same time.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

scientists made their discovery based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. according to this principle, it is impossible to accurately determine, both the temperature and the energy of an object at the same time.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

the fact is that, the most accurate scientific determination of temperature is achieved by placing the object in a tank of water or air. the temperature of which is known.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

in this case the studied object, reaches the temperature in the reservoir. which allows you to determine the exact initial temperature of the object. but then it's impossible to calculate the energy level, since the object constantly gives and receives it.
in the opposite case when energy is measured, the object must be isolated. so that it doesn't come into contact with or exchange energy. which in turn makes it impossible to measure temperature.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

however in the quantum world, everything works differently. if you measure the exact energy the temperature remains uncertain and will fluctuate between two values.
for example between 31 and 32 degrees Fahrenheit or minus point five and zero degrees Celsius.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

but if we apply the Schrodinger cat principle and some mathematical calculations. it turns out that the particle does not oscillate. but rather it has these two temperatures at the same time.
this means now physicists have the ability to measure the behavior of incredibly small nano particles, with great accuracy.

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

such as concept, may seem too strange and abstract. but all the same it is the mystery of Schrödinger cat that will lead to future development in many areas of human life.
this riddle is only partially solved. but each new puzzle in the quantum picture of the world, brings us closer to technologies, that today seem unimaginable.
quantum supercomputers capable of digitizing human consciousness, endless sources of energy all this will be available thanks to a small animal. that existed exclusively in the imagination of one great scientist.

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